02/10/2012

Please save my future generation



Your rights to know Tuesday, October 2, 2012 Front Page

DEPUTY SANGHARAJ SHREEMAD SATYAPRIYA MOHATHERO

Inam Ahmed and Julfikar Ali Manik, from Ramu, Cox's Bazar

The Buddha statues made of gold are lost forever. The intrinsic designs of Khadi wood are lost in the inferno. The Tripitak is lost too. But for Shreemad Satyapriya Mohathero, who had just turned 83, the loss and pain are even greater. He has lost all faith in his knowledge and reading of humanity.
“Even in 1971, I did not see this grotesque brutality on us,” Mohathero says. Mohathero is the second highest priest of the Buddhist community in Bangladesh.
“Muslim men and women had taken refuge in my monastery in 1971 to escape the wrath of the Pakistani army,” the feeble man says. “I have saved so many Muslim souls from the brutal persecution of the Pakistanis. Today I feel defeated.”
The Mohathero slowly walked into the Sima monastery yesterday afternoon, supported by his disciples. He went from one pagoda to another, and looked at the defaced, damaged statues of Lord Buddha and the nobles in a state of stupor.
He was sweating. He was shaking in pain and exasperation. And he spoke in his gentle, quaint voice.
The Bangalees who had taken refuge in his monastery invented a trick to evade the Pakistan army.
“I am a China Buddhist,” they would tell the Pakistan army when intercepted. When Bangladesh was at war, China sided with Pakistan. This is why the Pakistan army had great respect for anyone affiliated with China. A China Buddhist was a respectable person and so was to be spared persecution.
“The Pakistanis did not torch our village. This attack is totally out of the blue,” Mohathero says. “This is an attack on my religion. I have no foes.”
And yet he had to run for his life. When the mob attacked his monastery, his disciples held him on both sides, lifted him off the ground and carried him into the paddy field. That is where he hid the night and survived.
“My civilisation is lost. My lifetime of worshipping has gone in vain. I am a lost man and lost I will be,” he says.
“Please save my future generation! Please!”


Attack on Buddhist temples -Extremists must be defeated by Editorial

Your Rights to Know Tuesday, October 2, 2012 Front Page

      What happened in Ramu and some other areas in Chittagong must be condemned in the strongest possible terms. The outrage that was created by people burning down Buddhist temples and houses belies the long tradition of harmonious and peaceful coexistence between people of various creeds in Bangladesh. Religious tolerance and peaceful coexistence are not only an article of our people it is also enshrined in the Constitution of Bangladesh.
The regrettable incident has struck at the very ethos and the underlying essence of our long religio-cultural tradition. Whatever may have been the causative factor, the violent reaction seems to have been very well orchestrated. We believe that those who believe in the fundamental message of Islam would have exercised more temperance in addressing an issue centering on an anti-Islam picture on Facebook.
We would not be remiss in suggesting that, given that Rangamati episode being still fresh in our minds, the incidents should have been anticipated in areas with concentration of ethnic and religious minorities, and preempted by the law enforcing agencies. We cannot put it past the agent provocateurs to jump at the slightest opportunity to exploit the sentiments of the people for their ultimate ends. And this is where the saner elements of the society must come together cutting across religious or party lines to thwart the design of the troublemakers.
We are hearing different allegations being aired by different quarters, which we hope would be either confirmed or disproved after inquiry. What however, we find regrettable is the fact that the two parties have chosen to launch broadsides on each other accusing of complicity in the matter. It is regrettable that the Home minister would find it appropriate to hurl allegations even before the enquiry has started against the local MP who belongs to the BNP. On the other hand accusations made by the leader of the opposition based on hearsay that the ruling party elements were at the forefront of the attacks is equally unwarranted. Will these help an objective inquiry?
We must impress upon the need for and quick and objective inquiry to identify the perpetrators, who must be given the harshest punishment, as well as the role of the local leaders to stop the situation from deteriorating.
We express our unequivocal condemnation of the incident.


30/09/2012

Bangladeshi rioters torch Buddhist temples


THOUSANDS of rioters have torched Buddhist temples and homes in southeastern Bangladesh over a photo posted on Facebook deemed offensive to Islam, in a rare attack against the community.

Officials said the mob, comprising about 25,000 people, on Sunday set fire to at least five Buddhist temples and dozens of homes in Ramu town and its adjoining villages, about 350 kilometres from Dhaka.
The rioters claimed the photo allegedly defaming the Koran was uploaded on Facebook by a Buddhist man from the area, district administrator Joinul Bari said.
"They became unruly and attacked Buddhist houses, torching and damaging their temples from midnight to Sunday morning," Bari told AFP.
"At least 100 houses were damaged. We called in army and border guards to quell the violence."

Non-stop Spreading Rioters torch Buddhist temples, homes


The Rakain Buddha's Statue break down by Islamic Rioters in Ramu, Cox's Bazar

The Buddha's statue break down by Islamic Rioters

The Buddha's Statues break down by Islamic Rioters

20/08/2012

Peace

By 
Dhamma Rakkhita Bhikkhu
IMAP, M.A. Final Year Buddhist Studies.
Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University
                                                   

How spectacular this sphere is! Affluent with fruitful woods, corns, grains, ferrule thicket haired, girt with rivers, streams, deserts and many others are lavishly magnificent and graceful gift of Mother Nature. Being overwhelmed with fascinating beauty of nature, poets compose poems, speculative ones imagine inexpressible waves of effusion, beloved ones being engrossed in erotic affairs fancy of imaginary world. This is the way variegated world goes on.

Man has no greater principle than having loving-kindness (metta) and compassion (karuṇa) for others. One slays another very easily but loving-kindness and compassion are not an easy task and not a child’s play. And that is what mostly today witnessed occurring in our surroundings.[i] As the fire cannot be put out by weapon, thus hatred can never be conquered by hatred. Aversion can only be discontinued by loving-kindness and affection (ādara). So loving-kindness and compassion which are positive qualities in man are essential for a peaceful world expected by peace-loving and scrupulous people.

The Buddha’s sublime teachings found numerous disciples and appealed to many men all over the world. He stood for peace, compassion for all beings and against animal sacrifice.[ii] For him all religions professed freedom and friendship to co-exist. He was against was. Pity! His disciple the great emperor Asoka who caused a huge destruction of millions of lives and even his hundreds of step-brothers could not flee to be slain from his cruel sword. He won a war but finally he realized that blood shading can never bring about peace and happiness, even though victory is achieved over a country. It causes only a plight made up of disaster, distress, misery, unhappiness, brawl, malignancy, aversion and so on. But spite cannot be ravaged. Only through loving-kindness for all the beings grudge can be brought to an end. Having realized the reality he went back to his spiritual master, banned war, promoted peace, permitted religious pluralism and the right of everyone to his creed of happiness and development.

Of him H.G. Wells wrote:
For eight-and-twenty year’s great king Asoka worked sanely for the real needs of men. Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties and graciousness and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Asoka shines, and shines almost alone, a star. From the Volga to Japan his name is still honored. China, Tibet, and even India, though it has left his doctrine, preserve the tradition of his greatness. More living men cherish the memory today than have ever heard the names of Constantine or Charlemagne.[iii]

What was the Asoka’s dhamma? He recognized the sanctity of life and condemned the slaughter of animals, whether as sacrifices or otherwise. At one time he said a large number of animals, killed in his kitchen for food for his household, but he had reduced the number of only two peacocks and one dear, and these were killed everyday. He further declared even these would not be killed in the future. He wanted the people to cultivate moral virtues, such as the observance of truth, restraint, kindness, charity, purity, gentleness, respect, obeisance to one’s elders and teachers liberally to friends, kinsmen, acquaintances and even servants and slaves, as advocated in a famous pāli sutta, the sigalovāda sutta of the dīganikāya.[iv] He was completely converted to the Buddhist ideas of kindness and peace to all created beings. 

In spite of that people are engaged with hatred, barbarous massacre, world politics etc. disfiguring the value and purity of his won life. Rage (dosa) is the most perilous foe of man. People sometimes commit wicked and unwholesome deeds being overwhelmed with this rage. It is said to have no beast in the forest as fierce and formidable as man. Concerning it an Iranian poet “Nizami” once quoted, “The being called human in the world is much more ferocious and terrific than the beast like leopard and bear. Certain people with amicable manner living in our society always seek the ways to harm others for their won gain but fearful fatal beast never pretends to be friendly among us to cause damage. 

V.R. Krishna Iyer, said that, In my view, the finest man on earth ever born was Lord Buddha, a prince who abandoned his Kingdom seeing the suffering of his subjects, sought peace, truth and happiness for their fellowship.[v]

Of him Swami Vivekananda wrote:
The prophets of the world, with this single exception, may be divided into two sets, one set holding that they are incarnations of God come down to earth, and the other holding that they are only the messengers from God; and both draw their impetus for working from outside, however highly spiritual maybe the language they use. But Buddha is the only prophet who said, “I do not care to know your various theories about God. What is the use of discussing all the subtle doctrines about the soul? Do good and be good. And this will take you to freedom and to whatever truth there is.” He was, in the conduct of his life, absolutely without personal motives; and what man worked more than he?[vi]


The Buddha directed the erroneous and deluded people towards the right path of wisdom showing them the true realities of life by his words of compassion and loving-kindness. But having forgotten his principles of loving-kindness, people in the modernized world started engaging in inhumane and brutal acts. Inhumanity is entirely occupying us. As a result of that today people are engrossed in creating new killing-weapons. The first atomic bomb burst in the sky over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 at 8:15 AM (The Little Boy bomb, dropped by the U.S. B-29 Enola Gay, exploded with the force of 15 kilotons of explosive) and raised the curtain on the tragedy of mankind's entrance into the Nuclear Age. It gave warning that the human race may destroy itself through war. It confronted us with the dilemma we are forced to resolve: "Which shall it be, War or Peace?"[vii]


“The flame of peace” was built in 1964 as 10,000 observers offered their silent prayers for peace. It is said that the flame will burn until the entire world if free from nuclear weapons.[viii] On the other hand self-seeking one is holding a mask like “message of peace” to get his sake done (evil motivation). Therefore today what is the most vital in this merciless, ruthless, aggressive and grudging world are the teachings of the awakened one. Once he remarked ardently:      

“na hi verena verāni-sammanti’da kudācana
averena ca sammanti-esa dhammo sanantano”
[ix]

              It means in this world hatred never ceases by hatred it ceases by love alone. This is en eternal law.

               
 The essence of what the Buddha taught throughout his entire life for 45 years sums up in a verse that contains a message of peace through one’s own action. He uttered thus:
              sabba pāpassa akaraa--- kusalassa upasampadā
              sacitta pariyodapana----etam buddhāna sāsana[x]

The meaning, “Not to do any evil, to cultivate good, to purify one’s mind, - this is the teachings of the Buddha’s”.

In this verse all his sayings about the peace, the word “nibbāna” mean “Supreme-peace” so Buddha’s whole teachings are nibbānic dhamma. He laid down five precepts for human all for peace, the four noble truth, eight fold path, dependent origination and his Tipitakas as (sutta) Discourse, (vinaya) Discipline and (abhidhamma) Buddhist psychology & philosophy all teachings for peace. The Buddha sacrificed his princedom to share suffering of all Creation. He was only the person who had fully compassion, loving-kindness, sympathetic joy and equanimity. He spent his entire life for all living beings as for their peace.  

              The Buddha and Swami Vivekananda reincarnated to evolve operation confluence of materialism and spirituality. The immortal words of Vivekananda by which he describes Buddha as the highest ideal of Karma-Yogi: Let me tell you a few words about one man who actually carried this teaching of Karma-Yogi into practice. That man is Buddha. He is the one man who ever carried this into perfect practice. All the prophets in the world, except Buddha, had external motives to move them to unselfish action. Show me in history one character who has soared so high above all.

              The whole human race has produced but one such character, such high philosophy, such wide sympathy, yet had the deepest sympathy for the lowest animals, and never put forth any claims for himself. He is the ideal Karma-Yogi, acting entirely without motive, and the history of humanity shows him to have been the greatest man ever born; beyond compare the greatest combination of heart and brain that ever existed, the greatest soul power that has ever been manifested. Buddha is the first great reformer the world has seen. Buddhism is now under eclipse, violence, alas, is rampant. The world needs a dynamic new Buddha.[xi]

                  The eminent poet laureate in Bengali literature-Rabindranath Tagore once composed: 


“Shanta he, Mukta he, he Ananta Punya,
Karua Ghana Dharanital Karo Kalaka Sunya”.[xii]

              Herein, the meaning can be understood like this, his address to peace, liberation and boundless merits serves in keeping the sanctity of the world, which is being stained and stigmatized.

              “If the term Religion is meant to be a way towards the emancipation from enormous sufferings of worldly life and a path to the perfection of life, then the philosophy of Buddhism reaches the climax of it,”- the remarkable quote of the century prominent scientist Albert Einstein, the Buddha and his teachings is very much striking.[xiii]

“Cira tiṭṭhatu Buddha Sāsana

Referances:



[i] Nonviolence: An Introduction. Thomas Weber and Robert J. Burrowes,
 www.nonviolenceinternational.net/seasia/whatis/book.php -Thomas Weber and Robert J. Burr
                  [ii] Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2005a). In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

                  [iii] P.V. Bapat, 2500 Years of Buddhism. The publication Division Ministry of information and broadcasting Government of India: 1956. Pp.56-80.

      [iv] Dighanikāya, Sigalovāda Sutta

      [v] V.R. Krishna Iyer Locating the Rule of Law in Asia Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2011
      [vi] Swami Vivekananda, To My Brave Boys (written to Alasinga Perumal from New York on19th November, 1894).


                  [vii]  From Hiroshima Diary by Michihiko Hachiya.

      [ix] Dhammapada. yamakavagga , Verse No 5, khuddaka nikāya.
      [x] Dhammapada. Buddhavagga , Verse No 183, Vinaya Pitaka, Ovada Patimokkha.
      [xi] S wami Vivekananda, Karma Yoga, available at
      [xii] Rabindranath Tagore, (বুদ্ধজন্মোত্সব -Buddhajonmotshob) Buddha Birthday Celebration. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Verses&bi=FF66344F-BF40-405F-A85B-407E73D94158&ti=FF66344F-BF40-47CF-F85B-407E73D94158
      [xiii]  Albert Einstein, The world as I see it. See Amazon.com  

05/04/2012

WHO SHOULD OWN A VIHĀRA: A BHIKKHU OR A DAYAKA?

     Bhikkhu and Sangha are two important words that the Buddha used to refer to the monastic community. After his enlightenment the Buddha for the first time gave higher ordination to his five friends called “Pañcavaggiya Bhikkhu” i, then to Yasa and his five friends, namely, Vimala, Subhāhu, Punnaji and Gavampati who soon became Arahants. Later their fifty friends received higher ordination from the Buddha and eventually they also became Arahants. The total number of Arahants increased into sixty one. Thus the number of Arahants appeared to be sixty oneii in this world. Then the Buddha instructed them to propagate his teachings around the world. The Buddha said: 

“Cārata bhikkhave cārika bahujanahitāya, bahujanasukhāya,    
   lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna"  

     Walk, monks, on tour for the blessing of the manyfolk, for the happiness of the many folk out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, the blessing, the happiness of deve and man. Let not two (of you) go bye one (way.) Monks, teach dhamma which is lovely at the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending. Explain with the spirit and the letter the Brahma-faring completely fulfilled, wholly pure. There beings with little dust in their eyes, who, not hearing dhamma, are decaying, (but) if they are learners of dhamma, they will grow. And I, monks, will go along to Uruvelā, to the camp township, in order to teach dhamma”.iv   
    Where was the dwelling place for the Bhikkhu Sagha at that time? The Buddha and his disciple Bhikkhu Sagha were living here and there, in a forest, at the root of a tree, on a hillside, in a glen, in a mountain cave, in a cemetery, in a forest glade, in the open air, on a heap of straw.v They spread Buddha’s teachings and peace by wandering from village to village and city to city. They had no definite dwelling residence. They had to bear suffering and sorrows. Also, they had to face dangerous situation with sun shine, rain, winter, worms, insects, grasping, and assorted kinds of poisonous and ferocious living beings.vi Various hindrances occurred in their meditation. 
    In the second rain retreats of the Buddha after his enlightenment with thousands of monks reached at Rajagaha. Then King Bimbisara was streamer (sotapanna) having heard the Dhamma advice. Then King Bimbisara offered a livable place named Veluvana Garden for the Buddha and Bhikkhu Sangha. Then the Buddha had given them direction. Oh Bhikkhus, from this day you can accept the Park.vii But still could not get permission to accept Monastery (vihāra). 
   Now at that time, a great merchant (setthi) of Rajagaha went early one morning to a pleasure grove. While wandering in the Bamboo garden, he observed the Bhikkhu Sagha living here and there experienced immense anguish. Having seen the suffering of Bhikkhu Sagha, he made up his mindviii to offer dwelling places. Because the monks were facing various kinds of suffering, and for that reason it would obstruct their concentration. They would possibly engage in deep concentration without any obstacles if a Vihāra was offered for them, and it would protect them from the bites of mosquitoes, insects, and ferocious animals. 
    Then the great merchant of Rajagaha approached those monks; having approached, he spoke thus to those monks: “If I, revered sirs, were to have dwelling-places (vihāra) built, would you stay in my dwelling places?”ix Then those monks said him, “Householder, dwelling places have not been allowed by the Buddha.” Then the great merchant (setthi) of Rajagaha requested them. “Well then, revered sirs, having inquired to the Buddha, tell me (what he says).” Then these monks replied thus, “Very well, Householder.” 
    Then those monks reached to the Buddha and spoke thus: “the great merchant (setthi) of Rajagaha is willing to offer a dwelling place to us. What line of conduct should we follow." On this occasion, the Buddha addressed the monks, saying: "I allow, monks, from this day, you can accept these five kinds of abodes: a dwelling-place, a curved house, a long house, a mansion, a cave.”x 
   Having obtained permission from the Buddha, these monks approached to the merchant (setthi) of Rajagaha. After approaching, they spoke thus to the great merchant of Rajagaha: “Householder, dwellingplaces had been allowed by the Buddha. Do now what seems right.”xi Then the great merchant of Rajagaha had sixty dwelling-places established on one day alone. When the merchant had these sixty dwelling-places finished he approached the Buddha, having approached; having greeted the Buddha, respectfully he spoke thus to the Buddha: 
   Now the question is that, to whom were those monasteries offered to and why? Why the monasteries were offered by that rich man? The evident reason is for merits and to achieve heaven, and the Bhikkhu Sangha to live without any difficulties and happily for meditation. That is why the Buddha declared that offering Vihāras are the best and people always can earn merits.    
    There are two important references that indicate Buddha also accepted bigger gifts from kings and that these were considered Sagha property. Incidentally the offering verse is giving below in Pali and English as follows: 

“Imam vihāra catudissa agata anagatassa bhikkhu saghassa uddisse dema sagho yatha sukha paribhūñjanto”xii 
  
    This monastery from around not come yet, and we offering with reference to coming Bhikkhu Sagha wish to use happily.xiii 

     Who is the authority of the Vihāras in present? Are monks or Sagha could live happily at monastery? Also are the monks practicing their duties as (sīla) morality (samādhi) concentration and (paññā) wisdom? Only a few modest monks follow properly duties such as Dhamma and Vinaya. Most Buddhist monks in Bangladesh, not studying Dhamma and Vinaya engage with many unnecessary activities which are out of Vinaya, and monks join in Saghadāna and get some honorarium for professional service and some monks do well, they help to the poor students and novices (samaeras) for studying purpose. But most the monks do not help others but use for oneself stingily. At present, the Sagha administration in Bangladesh is very week and in worse situation. Those who are in highest possession such as Sagharāja, Upasangharāja, Secretary, members and whole Sagha Council do not possess any administrative power. “Where there is no respect for rules, there is no Discipline”. The junior monks do not respect the senior monks properly, and also the senior monks do wrong with junior monks, not showing their affection toward junior monk. And this is because we do not have proper Bhikkhu training centres for the learning teachings enshrined in the Pali Canon. There is no frequent assembly of the Sangha which is said to bring about discipline and happiness to the Order (sukhā saghassa sāmaggi, sammagāna tapo sukho).xiv At present, highest monks mostly do partiality, such as, preceptor-ism (Guruvāda) and disciple-ism (Śiśyavāda) i.e. if invitation is sent from abroad to attend a conference, highest monks select his disciples only and some of his close flatterer. As a result of these cases, Dāyakas get good chances to criticize those Bhikkhus and the Sagha as a whole. In spite of that, Dāyakas should have to consider that ordinary Bhikkhus are still subject to their defilements (kilesas). On the other hand, they are also protector of the Buddha Sāsana and thus are the symbols of the Buddha and the Buddhists. So they deserve devotees’ reverencexv for their general contribution as the member of the Sangha praised by the Buddha himself. 
    From the Buddha’s own promulgation of the rule to possess dwelling place (senasana) for their own use donated by the devotees is evidently seen in the Vinayalankara, thus: 

“Vihāra dāyaka nāma natthi”xvi 
The meaning is, “Monastery is not for Dāyaka”. 
But now-a-days, the committee Dāyakas are the authority of Vihāras, and the Vihāra is directed by committee, some monasteries are built by a family and they use their power to the abbot and others residence monks. Most of the monks in Bangladesh, living at the monastery by direction of the Dāyakas. So they order the monks to do various kinds of activities at their monastery, and the monks following command, direction, order and injunction of devotees (Dāyakas). If some monks do not follow Dāyakas command then, they reprimand from the Vihāra. Some devotee criticize thus; oh our Bhante is so lazy, he never plant flowers and trees in the monastery, he does not developing our monastery, does not talk with us, he does not give us his properties and useable things. I myself faced all those problems when I was in Bangladesh. Reasons of above, some foolish Dāyakas make a group and check up the monk whether he is do something wrong or not, when that group seek fault of that monk then they attempt to reprimand him. Sorry to say that true, but I have to mention here both side Bhikkhus and Dāyakas. But I’m not mentioning all Dāyākas and Bhikkhus here, only a handful of Dāyakas in every Buddhist village have impolite and fault finder.   
     Because of these reasons, most of the monks are going to the foreign countries and many of them disrobe. As a result, many Vihāras have no monk, monk-less Buddhists going to lose beliefs in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sagha. One of these consequences seems to be the most deplorable that is the conversion of Buddhist girls and boys into the Islam and in other religions. 
      I lived in Sri-Lanka for 3 years, in Myanmar for 3 years and in Thailand for 5 years, my 11 years of experience in 3 main Theravada Buddhist countries I have never seen the Buddhist people to interfere in the monastery, and I have never seen any Buddhist people to take chance to deliverance any Dāyaka’s speech at religious ceremony with the Sagha. Only the Buddhist people of Bangladesh possessed the power on Vihāra and abbot, also in every activities devotee attempt to show there power, possession, fame and praise mostly devotee speakers like to speak about political not Dhamma in the Kathina ceremony, monks could not get chance to preach their valuable Dhamma. Some donors get possession as chief guest, sit on respectable chair with Sagha and declare amount in microphone how much they are going to offer at monastery. According to Buddhism the above mentioned all points are not a proper way and may devotee must have to consider all. 
      Finally I would like to welcome Dāyakas as well as Bhikkhus to investigate rightly which is the suitable duty for them in social and religious life. The roots of unwholesome action are called Lobha, Dosa and Moha. These three unwholesome roots are the causes of all kinds of suffering. We must have to know what we are doing and what we are supposed to do, according to the Buddhist principle both for laymen and monks. As a proverb goes on “A cobbler should stick to his last.” Therefore, every Bhkkhus should engage in practicing Sīla, Samādhi, paññā, with the aim to attain Nibbāna. On the other hand, the Dāyakas duty is to practice householder-virtues (Gahapati Dhamma) and to support the Bhikkhu Sagha for the perpetuation of Buddha Sāsana. 
 "Mama Upajjhayassa Bāglādesassa Mettapadipassa parama
pūjaniyassa sirimato Sagharakkhitassa Mahāterassa yassa  jīvana cintādhārāca mama jīvane pātheyya tesa Saritvā Samappito aya gantho. 
   Dedicated to my revered teacher light of metta Ven. Sagharakkhita Mahāthera of Bangladesh, whose life and thought have become the source of my inspiration and guidance. 

May all beings be well and happy!


References-:
i I. B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline Vol. IV (Mahāavagga), Translation, Luzac & Company Ltd, London: 1951.p.28. At Isipatana the Buddha at first used the word Bhikkhu Sangha. 
ii Ibid, p. 28. 
iii Mahāvaggapāli, (Vinaya-piaka). 
iv Ibid, p.28. 
v vi I. B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline Vol. V (Cullavagga), Luzac & Company Ltd, London: 1952. p.204. 
vii I. B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline Vol. IV (Mahāavagga), Translation, Luzac & Company Ltd, London: 1951.p.52. 
viii It is said as he determined to donate dwelling place to the Sagha, ‘his mind became clear and bright’ (Assa citta pasidi). ix Ibid, p. 204. 
x Op. cit, p. 205. 
xi Ibid, p.204. 
xii Cullavaggapāli 
xiii Ibid. 
xiv Dhp. 194. 
xv The Buddha warned to reverence and fear towards these four persons: 1) To young viper: it is a poisonous that its bite can lead to death. 2) To Spark of fire: it is dangerous because it can destroy the world. 3) To the young prince: because he is royal blood and possesses royal authority, using which he is able to punish one even to death penalty. 4) A young Buddhist Novice: because he is virtuous one, the messenger of the Buddha, he is endowed with 22 kinds of qualities, he is spirited than the ffire. That’s why the Buddha said to be careful from these four things. (See Milindapañha) 
xvi Buddhabani Vinayalakāra.

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